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Process of welding for body and details.
The process of body welding is the most important, as it directly affects the safety of the car during operation. Incorrectly chosen welding modes of body elements can lead to improper absorption of impact (deformation) during an accident, as a consequence of the death of passengers.
In the automotive industry, four welding methods are used:
- Contact welding is a modern and reliable way to “connect body detail in the automotive industry.
Advantages – no metal heats up to high temperatures, respectively, does not occur and deformation of the metal compounds.
Disadvantages – absent, with low technological discipline and improperly selected modes, the quality of metal joints to each other is low.
- Semi-automatic welding-soldering with the help of wire – is applied to the quality of additional welding of any elements (compounds).
Advantages – solid metal compound, possibly even stronger than in the contact method.
Disadvantages – there is a seam on the metal surface, the effect of high temperature on the metal around the seam, which leads to poor adhesion of paintwork in the process of painting and operation, i.e. possible detachment of paintwork in this place.
- Arc welding – used during the development of the automotive industry, at the moment there are cases of use in the domestic automotive industry.
Advantages – in popularity is not inferior to modern automated and mechanized methods for the quality of the connection.
Disadvantages – the effect of a higher temperature on the metals being welded, which leads to poor adhesion of paintwork in the process of painting and operation, i.e. detachment of paint and varnish materials is possible in this place or on a section of rows, it has a detrimental effect on personnel, it requires mandatory reworking (stripping) after welding, which leads to additional complexity.
An alternative method of arc welding is plasma and laser welding, which is widely used in European countries, in particular Group VW.
- Laser welding – is considered the most modern and durable method of connecting body elements in the welding industry. The metal is heated to the melting temperature, in other words it is an analogue of arc welding, but more modern. It has not found wide application in other plants, including in Russia, because it requires a “jewelry” gap between the parts, virtually zero. Rare automobile production boasts quality parts, where the inherent design and execution in the press shop production are kept at a high level.
- Plasma welding – in fact, it is a thin jet torch (gas-powered) with a working temperature of up to 15000 ° C, produces melting and soldering of metals, as in laser welding requires zero joint seam.In laser and plasma welding, the process of concentrated spot heating is carried out, and slag and metal warping are practically not emitted. Plasma welding is considered a cheaper way to laser.All three processes are necessary in the automotive industry, since the seam or welded elements in their quality become almost all-metal, which ultimately gives the rigidity of the structure. Arc and plasma welding is often used when welding (soldering) roofs and sidewalls.The most expensive process is laser, the cost is 2 times higher in relation to the plasma process, so European automakers often use plasma welding (soldering).The process of arc, laser, plasma welding is not final and requires mandatory subsequent grinding (alignment) of the weld, also in an automated version, since is very time consuming.It is IMPORTANT TO KNOW that when designing a line and building a welding process, the START-STOP principle is applied, both in automated mode (using robots) and in manual mode (using operators). The transfer of body elements or the body itself goes from table to table, respectively, at each stage there is its own welding process, constantly moving conveyor as in assembly and painting is impossible.
Body welding is divided into several stages:
- Welding of small / medium / large body parts;
- Assembly of internal and facial elements, followed by flanging;
- Setting the gaps;
- Scaling and straightening;
- Assessment of quality before shipment for painting;
- Assessment of the quality of individual welded elements using instruments;
- Check the collection of parts.